helping with injured victims. In the essay, Gates states that an epidemic writing about cancer in college essay caused by a natural disaster or bioterrorism is the most likely event that could kill 10 million or more people all at the same time. Generally, an epidemic occurs when host immunity to either an established pathogen or newly emerging novel pathogen is suddenly reduced below that found in the endemic equilibrium and the transmission threshold is exceeded. A b c d e Martin PM, Martin-Granel E (June 2006). Controlling the global obesity epidemic, the World Health Organisation "Epidemic." Black's Medical Dictionary, 42nd Edition. Passing a stage of development of the infecting agent in an intermediate host. Affected individuals may become independent reservoirs leading to further exposures. Influenza, the common cold, and other infections of the upper respiratory tract, such as sore throat, occur predominantly in the winter. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
"transmission." Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic. The first layer is a disease surveillance system.
There is another variation, both as regards the number of people affected and the number who die in successive epidemics: the severity of successive epidemics rises and falls over periods of five or ten years. Certain epidemics occur at certain seasons. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2007. A treatise of the plague: containing the nature, signes, and accidents of the same, with the certaine and absolute cure of the fevers, botches and carbuncles that raigne in these times. 1, the declaration of an epidemic usually requires a good understanding of a baseline rate of incidence ; epidemics for certain diseases, such as influenza, are defined as reaching some defined increase in incidence above this baseline. Bruce Aylward, assistant director general for emergencies at the World Health Organization, says that in the case of the Ebola outbreak, "there was no way anyone could guarantee the right of medical evacuation for people affected by Ebola. Fecal-oral transmission: The infectious agent is shed by the infected host in feces and acquired by the susceptible host through ingestion of contaminated material. 2, a few cases of a very rare disease may be classified as an epidemic, while many cases of a common disease (such as the common cold ) would not. An epidemic may be restricted to one location; however, if it spreads to other countries or continents and affects a substantial number of people, it may be termed a pandemic.
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