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One is "independent" and the other is "dependent." The independent variable is the one you, the scientist control and the dependent variable is the one that you observe and/or measure the results. Any hypothesis will need proof. Roses..
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The Norse believed that during a thunderstorm, Thor rode through the heavens on his chariot pulled by the goats Tanngrisni (gap-tooth) and Tanngnost (tooth grinder). He was also the god of the household and of the common people...
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Cigarette research paper pdf


cigarette research paper pdf

as we know what the active carcinogenic component of tobacco tar really is whether a given filter is successful in removing or reducing the carcinogenic properties of tobacco smoke cannot be ascertained at this. 23 To induce electrostatic attraction between tar particles and cigarette filter filaments, researchers considered arranging filter fibres of opposing charge in parallel lines, which theoretically could be accomplished by coating fibres with oppositely charged metals. Cigarette rolling papers use seed flax mixed with paper pulp to produce a thin, flammable paper. However, during the research and development phase of filtered cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s, few argued that filters could not be designed to reduce the hazards of smoking. Alternative cigarettes, including menthol, filter-tipped, and low-tar cigarettes. At first, all cigarettes were rolled manually, whether by the individual smoker or by shop workers, who rolled and glued cigarettes before they were packaged. 11 As Pauly et al observed in a 2002 Tobacco Control article: The speed at which cigarettes are made challenges the imaginationa single machine makes filter cigarettes at the rate of 15 000 or more per minute. MacRae went on to say that, since (our) polyfiber possesses an exceedingly high surface to mass ratio and the product is in physical form which might lend itself readily to being formed into a cigarette filter, it is our thought that this product might.

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25 The most obvious way to continue to raise filter efficiency without increasing puff efforts was to vent the filters. Curing the leaf 3 Next, the leaves are carefully, gradually dried in a specially constructed barn by air curing, flue curing, or fire curing. Vents allow upwards of 50 air dilution of mainstream smoke in some of these brands, which consequently cuts tar yields in half, at least in the laboratory. 22 It became evident that filter cigarettes, even those containing appreciable quantities of adsorbent charcoal, (did) not selectively reduce the levels of permanent gases in cigarette smoke. What cigarette designers were looking for was a material that, ideally, could be custom-made. The condensation of (gas) molecules on the filter surface was necessary if mainstream gases were to be reduced. The notion ap psychology essay grading rubric of filtering smoke to protect the lungs, however, predated cigarettes. Although a smaller percentage of American men smoke today than thirty years ago, a greater percentage of smokers are women and teenagers. Artificial heat is used only during cold or excessively humid weather. The hygroscopic quality of cellulose acetate was the reason why cellulose acetate filters had been ineffective at trapping harmful mainstream gases.

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